Wednesday, April 20, 2016

SQL LOADER IN Oracle Apps

SQL LOADER is an Oracle utility used to load data from the given data-file into table or tables created in the database. The data-file which has the records those need to be loaded. SQL*Loader takes data file, as well as a control file, to insert data into the table. When a Control file is executed, it may create 3 files called log file, bad file, and discard file.

Log file will be created for sure in any case (Pass or fail). Bad file would only be created if any record validation fails and Discard file would be created only WHEN condition fails (If Control file has the WHEN condition).
  • Log file tells you the number of logical records already read from the input data-file and the state of the tables and indexes. This information can be used to resume the load where it left off.
  • bad file gives you the records that were rejected because of formatting errors or because they caused Oracle/validation errors .
  • discard file specifies the records that do not meet any of the loading criteria like when any of the WHEN clauses specified in the control file. These records differ from rejected records.
CONTROL : file will have the path and name of the DATA-FILE. If both the CONTROL and DATA files are present in the same directory then you do not need to give any path of the data-file (Name of the file will be enough).

SQL LOADER : utility can be used from any Operating system like Windows, UNIX or Linux etc.

Variable record format
Variable Record Format would like below where the data fields are separated by a delimiter. Note: The Delimiter can be anything you like. In this case it is “|”
NAME1|0001|9999|08-JAN-08|10
NAME1112|0033|989|08-FEB-08|20
NAME1231|0021|9999|08-SEP-08|30
NAME45601|0041|9999|08-AUG-08|40
NAME23451|0051|9999|08-JUL-08|30
NAME56541|0023|9999|08-JAN-08|40

Structure of a Control file:
Sample CONTROL/CTL file for loading a variable record data file.
OPTIONS (SKIP = 2)
The first 2 rows will be skipped in data file.
LOAD DATA
It’s kind of the BEGIN statement in CTL file.
INFILE ‘$FILE’
Specify the data file path and name
APPEND
Type of loading (INSERT, APPEND, REPLACE, TRUNCATE
INTO TABLE ‘Your Table Name’
the table to be loaded into
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ‘|’
Symbol (|) which used to separate the col’s
OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY ‘”‘
Values of the data fields may be enclosed (“)
TRAILING NULLCOLS
columns that are not present in the record treated as null
(COL1 “TRIM (:COL1)”,
Can use all SQL functions on columns
COL2 DECIMAL EXTERNAL,

COL3 DECIMAL EXTERNAL,

COL4 “TO_CHAR(:COL,’DD-MON-YY’)”
Date format can be given
COL5 CONSTANT “AOT”
Can specify constant value instead of getting value from data-file

OPTION : statement precedes the LOAD DATA statement. The OPTIONS parameter allows you to specify runtime arguments in the control file, rather than on the command line. The following arguments can be specified using the OPTIONS parameter.

SKIP = n — Number of logical records to skip (Default 0)
LOAD = n — Number of logical records to load (Default all)
ERRORS = n — Number of errors to allow (Default 50)
ROWS = n — Number of rows in conventional path bind array or between direct path data saves (Default: Conventional Path 64, direct path all)
BINDSIZE = n — Size of conventional path bind array in bytes (System-dependent default)
SILENT = {FEEDBACK | ERRORS | DISCARDS | ALL} — Suppress messages during run (header, feedback, errors, discards, partitions, all)
DIRECT = {TRUE | FALSE} –Use direct path (Default FALSE)
PARALLEL = {TRUE | FALSE} — Perform parallel load (Default FALSE)

LOAD DATA : statement is required at the beginning of the control file.

INFILE: INFILE keyword is used to specify location and name of the data-file.
INFILE * specifies that the data is found in the control file and not in an external file. You will find the data in the same CONTROL file.
INFILE ‘$FILE’, can be used to send the file path and filename as a parameter when registered as a concurrent program in the Oracle Application.
INFILE ‘/home/demo/phani/file01.txt’ specifies the file-path and the filename.

Example: – For the data-file is an external file.
LOAD DATA
INFILE ‘ /home/demo/phani/file01.txt’
INTO TABLE XX_EMP
FIELDS TERMINATED BY “,”
(NAME, ENUM, SAL, JDATE, DEPTNO)
Example: – For the data-file is in the Control file.
LOAD DATA
INFILE *
INTO TABLE xx_emp
FIELDS TERMINATED BY “|”
( NAME, ENUM, SAL, JDATE,DEPTNO )
BEGINDATA
PHANI|0001|9999|08-JAN-08|10
REDDY|0033|989|08-FEB-08|20
RAHUL|0021|9999|08-SEP-08|30
MANOJ|0041|9999|08-AUG-08|40
RANA|0051|9999|08-JUL-08|30

Example: – For the file name and path is sent as a parameter when registered as a concurrent program
LOAD DATA
INFILE ‘$FILE’
INTO TABLE SCOTT.XX_EMP
FIELDS TERMINATED BY “,”
(NAME, ENUM, SAL, JDATE, DEPTNO)

TYPE OF LOADING:
INSERT — If the table you are loading is empty, INSERT can be used.
APPEND — If data already exists in the table, SQL*Loader appends the new rows to it. If data doesn’t already exist, the new rows are simply loaded.
REPLACE — All rows in the table are deleted and the new data is loaded
TRUNCATE — SQL*Loader uses the SQL TRUNCATE command.

INTO TABLE is required to identify the table to be loaded and in the above example INTO TABLE “SCOTT”.”XX_EMP”, SCOTT refers to the Schema and XX_EMP is the Table name.
Note: – The Schema name is not the mandatory. Since, when we run the command to run the CTL file, we will provide the login information. So, what ever the username we give in the command It will look for the object in that schema. (Schema name is nothing but the Username you are using to login into the database).

FIELDS TERMINATED BY specifies how the data fields are terminated in the data-file. (If the file is Comma delimited or Pipe delimited etc)

OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY ‘”‘ specifies that data fields may also be enclosed by quotation marks.

TRAILING NULLCOLS clause tells SQL*Loader to treat any relatively positioned columns that are not present in the record as null columns.

Command to run the SQL*Loader:-
sqlldr USERID=’User_name’/’Password’ CONTROL=’Your control filename’ LOG=’Log file name’
Example:- sqlldr USERID=scott/tiger CONTROL=aottest.ctl
1) You provide the Username and password to connect to the database.
2) Control file name should be given which you want to run. In the above Example aottest.ctl control file name.
3) Log file name can be given. So that when log file is create by the command would create with same name as given. But this is not the default parameter. If log name is not given then by default name would be given by the system.

Fixed record format:-
Fixed Record Format would look like the below. In this case you give a specific position where the Control file can expect a data field.
1001         PHANI       CLERK
1002         REDDY        SALESMAN
1003         USER1         SALESMAN
1004         USER2         MANAGER
1005         USER3         SALESMAN
1006         USER4         MANAGER
1007         USER5         MANAGER
1008         USER6         ANALYST
1009         USER7         PRESIDENT
2010         USER8         SALESMAN
1011         USER9         CLERK

Structure of a Control file:
Sample CONTROL/CTL file for loading a Fixed record data file.
OPTIONS (SKIP = 2) –The first 2 rows will be skipped in data file.
LOAD DATA — It’s kind of the BEGIN statement in CTL file.
INFILE ‘$FILE’ — Specify the data file path and name
APPEND — Type of loading (INSERT, APPEND, REPLACE, TRUNCATE
INTO TABLE ‘Your Table Name’ — the table to be loaded into
( COL1 POSITION(01:04) INTEGER EXTERNAL,
COL2 POSITION(06:10) CHAR,
COL3 POSITION(16:24) CHAR
)

OPTION statement precedes the LOAD DATA statement. The OPTIONS parameter allows you to specify runtime arguments in the control file, rather than on the command line. The following arguments can be specified using the OPTIONS parameter.
SKIP = n — Number of logical records to skip (Default 0)
LOAD = n — Number of logical records to load (Default all)
ERRORS = n — Number of errors to allow (Default 50)
ROWS = n — Number of rows in conventional path bind array or between direct path data saves (Default: Conventional Path 64, direct path all)
BINDSIZE = n — Size of conventional path bind array in bytes (System-dependent default)
SILENT = {FEEDBACK | ERRORS | DISCARDS | ALL} — Suppress messages during run (header, feedback, errors, discards, partitions, all)
DIRECT = {TRUE | FALSE} –Use direct path (Default FALSE)
PARALLEL = {TRUE | FALSE} — Perform parallel load (Default FALSE)

LOAD DATA statement is required at the beginning of the control file.

INFILE: INFILE keyword is used to specify location and name of the data-file.
INFILE * specifies that the data is found in the control file and not in an external file. You will find the data in the same CONTROL file.
INFILE ‘$FILE’, can be used to send the file path and filename as a parameter when registered as a concurrent program in the Oracle Application.
INFILE ‘/home/demo/phani/file01.txt’ specifies the file-path and the filename.

TYPE OF LOADING:
INSERT — If the table you are loading is empty, INSERT can be used.
APPEND — If data already exists in the table, SQL*Loader appends the new rows to it. If data doesn’t already exist, the new rows are simply loaded.
REPLACE — All rows in the table are deleted and the new data is loaded
TRUNCATE — SQL*Loader uses the SQL TRUNCATE command.

INTO TABLE is required to identify the table to be loaded.

Command to run the SQL*Loader:-
sqlldr USERID=’User_name’/’Password’ CONTROL=’Your control filename’ LOG=’Log file name’

Example:- sqlldr USERID=scott/tiger CONTROL=aottest.ctl
1) You provide the Username and password to connect to the database.
2) Control file name should be given which you want to run. In the above Example aottest.ctl control file name.
3) Log file name can be given. So that when log file is create by the command would create with same name as given. But this is not the default parameter. If log name is not given then by default name would be given by the system.

Demo fixed script
It is always good to run some script successfully and tries to learn more about it, features etc. This page is design for the SQL*LOADER scripts for the Fixed format data-file.
Follow the steps given below to run the fixed format data-file script.
1) Create one Folder in your Operating System. Let the folder name ‘XYZ’
2) Download the Data-File in the XYZ folder.
Click on the link given to download the Data-File:
3) Download the CONTROL in the XYZ folder.
Click on the Link given to download the CONTROL file:
4) Download the CREATE Table script in the XYZ Folder.
Click on the Link given to Download the create table script:
5) Execute/Run the Create Table script in your database to create the table.
6) Run the command to run the Control file.

sqlldr USERID=scott/tiger CONTROL=aottest.ctl
7) Verify the log file created and also check if there is any bad or discard file created.
8) Query the table in database where you have INSERTED the records


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