Monday, February 15, 2016

Oracle PL/SQL FAQs

1. To see current user name
Sql> show user;

2.How do you switch from an init.ora file to a spfile? 
Issue the create spfile from pfile command.

3. Switch to DOS prompt
SQL> host

4.What is the difference between a hot backup and a cold backupand the benefits associated with each?
A hot backup is basically taking a backup of the database while it is still up and running and it must be in archive log mode. A cold backup is taking a backup of the database while it is shut down and does not require being in archive log mode.

Benefits:
The benefit of taking a hot backup is that the database is still available for use while the backup is occurring and you can recover the database to any ball in time. The benefit of taking a cold backup is that it is typically easier to administer the backup and recovery process. In addition, since you are taking cold backups the database does not require being in archive log mode and thus there will be a slight performance gain as the database is not cutting archive logs to disk.

5. How do I display row number with records?
To achive this use rownum pseudocolumn with query, like SQL> SQL> select rownum, ename from emp;
Output:
1 Scott
2 Millor
3 Jiyo
4 Smith

6. Display the records between two range
select rownum, empno, ename from emp where rowid in
(select rowid from emp where rownum <=&upto
minus
select rowid from emp where rownum<&Start);
Enter value for upto: 10
Enter value for Start: 7
ROWNUM EMPNO ENAME
——— ——— ———-
1 7782 CLARK
2 7788 SCOTT
3 7839 KING
4 7844 TURNER

7. I know the nvl function only allows the same data type(ie. number or char or date
Nvl(comm, 0)), if commission is null then the text “Not Applicable” want to display, instead of
blank space. How do I write the query?
SQL> select nvl(to_char(comm.),’NA’) from emp;

Output :
NVL(TO_CHAR(COMM),’NA’)
———————–
NA
300
500
NA
1400
NA
NA

8. Oracle cursor : Implicit & Explicit cursors
Oracle uses work areas called private SQL areas to create SQL statements.
PL/SQL construct to identify each and every work are used, is called as Cursor.
For SQL queries returning a single row, PL/SQL declares all implicit cursors.
For queries that returning more than one row, the cursor needs to be explicitly declared.

9. Explicit Cursor attributes
There are four cursor attributes used in Oracle
cursor_name%Found, cursor_name%NOTFOUND, cursor_name%ROWCOUNT, cursor_name%ISOPEN

10. Implicit Cursor attributes
Same as explicit cursor but prefixed by the word SQL
SQL%Found, SQL%NOTFOUND, SQL%ROWCOUNT, SQL%ISOPEN
Tips : 1. Here SQL%ISOPEN is false, because oracle automatically closed the implicit cursor after
executing SQL statements.
: 2. All are Boolean attributes.

11. Find out nth highest salary from emp table
SELECT DISTINCT (a.sal) FROM EMP A WHERE &N = (SELECT COUNT (DISTINCT (b.sal)) FROM EMP B
WHERE a.sal<=b.sal);
Enter value for n: 2
SAL
———
3700

12. To view installed Oracle version information
SQL> select banner from v$version;

13. Display the number value in Words
SQL> select sal, (to_char(to_date(sal,’j'), ‘jsp’))
from emp;
the output like,
SAL (TO_CHAR(TO_DATE(SAL,’J'),’JSP’))
——— —————————————————–
800 eight hundred
1600 one thousand six hundred
1250 one thousand two hundred fifty
If you want to add some text like,
Rs. Three Thousand only.
SQL> select sal “Salary “,
(‘ Rs. ‘|| (to_char(to_date(sal,’j'), ‘Jsp’))|| ‘ only.’))
“Sal in Words” from emp
/
Salary Sal in Words
——- ——————————————————
800 Rs. Eight Hundred only.
1600 Rs. One Thousand Six Hundred only.
1250 Rs. One Thousand Two Hundred Fifty only.

14. Display Odd/ Even number of records
Odd number of records:
select * from emp where (rowid,1) in (select rowid, mod(rownum,2) from emp);
1
3
5
Even number of records:
select * from emp where (rowid,0) in (select rowid, mod(rownum,2) from emp)
2
4
6

15. Which date function returns number value?
months_between

16. Any three PL/SQL Exceptions?
Too_many_rows, No_Data_Found, Value_Error, Zero_Error, Others

17. What are PL/SQL Cursor Exceptions?
Cursor_Already_Open, Invalid_Cursor

18. Other way to replace query result null value with a text
SQL> Set NULL ‘N/A’
to reset SQL> Set NULL ‘’

19. What are the more common pseudo-columns?
SYSDATE, USER , UID, CURVAL, NEXTVAL, ROWID, ROWNUM

20. What is the output of SIGN function?
1 for positive value,
0 for Zero,
-1 for Negative value.

21. What is the maximum number of triggers, can apply to a single table?
12 triggers.

22. How do I eliminate the duplicate rows ?
SQL> delete from table_name where rowid not in (select max(rowid) from table group by
duplicate_values_field_name);
or

SQL> delete duplicate_values_field_name dv from table_name ta where rowid <(select min(rowid) from
table_name tb where ta.dv=tb.dv);
Example.
Table Emp
Empno Ename
101 Scott
102 Jiyo
103 Millor
104 Jiyo
105 Smith
Delete ename from emp a where rowid < ( select min(rowid) from emp b where a.ename = b.ename);
The output like,
Empno Ename
101 Scott
102 Millor
103 Jiyo
104 Smith

24. Change SQL prompt name
SQL> set sqlprompt “XXAA > “
XXAA >
XXAA >


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