Wednesday, June 13, 2012

Oracle Structured Query Language(SQL) Material


What is SQL?
  • SQL stands for Structured Query Language
  • SQL lets you access and manipulate databases
  • SQL is an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard

What Can SQL do?
  • SQL can execute queries against a database
  • SQL can retrieve data from a database
  • SQL can insert records in a database
  • SQL can update records in a database
  • SQL can delete records from a database
  • SQL can create new databases
  • SQL can create new tables in a database
  • SQL can create stored procedures in a database
  • SQL can create views in a database
  • SQL can set permissions on tables, procedures, and views
SQL DML and DDL
SQL can be divided into two parts: The Data Manipulation Language (DML) and the Data Definition Language (DDL).
The query and update commands form the DML part of SQL:
  • SELECT - extracts data from a database
  • UPDATE - updates data in a database
  • DELETE - deletes data from a database
  • INSERT INTO - inserts new data into a database
The DDL part of SQL permits database tables to be created or deleted. It also define indexes (keys), specify links between tables, and impose constraints between tables. The most important DDL statements in SQL are:
  • CREATE DATABASE - creates a new database
  • ALTER DATABASE - modifies a database
  • CREATE TABLE - creates a new table
  • ALTER TABLE - modifies a table
  • DROP TABLE - deletes a table
  • CREATE INDEX - creates an index (search key)
  • DROP INDEX - deletes an index

SQL SELECT Syntax

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
and
SELECT * FROM table_name

In a table, some of the columns may contain duplicate values. This is not a problem, however, sometimes you will want to list only the different (distinct) values in a table.
The DISTINCT keyword can be used to return only distinct (different) values.

SQL SELECT DISTINCT Syntax

SELECT DISTINCT column_name(s)
FROM table_name



The WHERE clause is used to filter records.

The WHERE Clause 

The WHERE clause is used to extract only those records that fulfill a specified criterion.

SQL WHERE Syntax

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name operator value

SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE City='Sandnes'C
SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE FirstName='Tove'
SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE Year=1965



Operators Allowed in the WHERE Clause
With the WHERE clause, the following operators can be used:
Operator
Description
=
Equal
<> 
Not equal
Greater than
Less than
>=
Greater than or equal
<=
Less than or equal
BETWEEN
Between an inclusive range
LIKE
Search for a pattern
IN
If you know the exact value you want to return for at least one of the columns

The AND & OR operators are used to filter records based on more than one condition.

The AND & OR Operators
·         The AND operator displays a record if both the first condition and the second condition is true.
                           SELECT * FROM Persons  WHERE FirstName='Tove'  AND LastName='Svendson'
·         The OR operator displays a record if either the first condition or the second condition is true.

               SELECT * FROM Persons  WHERE FirstName='Tove'  OR   FirstName='Ola'


Combining AND & OR

You can also combine AND and OR (use parenthesis to form complex expressions).
                 SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE  LastName='Svendson'  
                        AND (FirstName='Tove' OR FirstName='Ola')

The ORDER BY keyword is used to sort the result-set.

The ORDER BY Keyword

The ORDER BY keyword is used to sort the result-set by a specified column.
The ORDER BY keyword sort the records in ascending order by default.
If you want to sort the records in a descending order, you can use the DESC keyword.

SQL ORDER BY Syntax

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
ORDER BY column_name(s) ASC|DESC


ORDER BY Example

The "Persons" table:
P_Id
LastName
FirstName
Address
City
1
Hansen
Ola
Timoteivn 10
Sandnes
2
Svendson
Tove
Borgvn 23
Sandnes
3
Pettersen
Kari
Storgt 20
Stavanger
4
Nilsen
Tom
Vingvn 23
Stavanger
Now we want to select all the persons from the table above, however, we want to sort the persons by their last name.
We use the following SELECT statement:
SELECT * FROM Persons
ORDER BY LastName
The result-set will look like this:
P_Id
LastName
FirstName
Address
City
1
Hansen
Ola
Timoteivn 10
Sandnes
4
Nilsen
Tom
Vingvn 23
Stavanger
3
Pettersen
Kari
Storgt 20
Stavanger
2
Svendson
Tove
Borgvn 23
Sandnes


ORDER BY DESC Example

Now we want to select all the persons from the table above, however, we want to sort the persons descending by their last name.
We use the following SELECT statement:
SELECT * FROM Persons
ORDER BY LastName DESC
The result-set will look like this:
P_Id
LastName
FirstName
Address
City
2
Svendson
Tove
Borgvn 23
Sandnes
3
Pettersen
Kari
Storgt 20
Stavanger
4
Nilsen
Tom
Vingvn 23
Stavanger
1
Hansen
Ola
Timoteivn 10
Sandnes

The INSERT INTO Statement The INSERT INTO statement is used to insert a new row in a table.

SQL INSERT INTO Syntax

It is possible to write the INSERT INTO statement in two forms.
The first form doesn't specify the column names where the data will be inserted, only their values:
INSERT INTO table_name
VALUES (value1, value2, value3,...)
The second form specifies both the column names and the values to be inserted:
INSERT INTO table_name (column1, column2, column3,...)
VALUES (value1, value2, value3,...)

EX :
INSERT INTO Persons VALUES (4,'Nilsen', 'Johan', 'Bakken 2', 'Stavanger')
INSERT INTO Persons (P_Id, LastName, FirstName) VALUES (5, 'Tjessem', 'Jakob')

The UPDATE statement is used to update records in a table.

The UPDATE Statement

The UPDATE statement is used to update existing records in a table.

SQL UPDATE Syntax

UPDATE table_name
SET column1=value, column2=value2,...
WHERE some_column=some_value
Note: Notice the WHERE clause in the UPDATE syntax. The WHERE clause specifies which record or records that should be updated. If you omit the WHERE clause, all records will be updated!

The DELETE statement is used to delete records in a table.

The DELETE Statement

The DELETE statement is used to delete rows in a table.

SQL DELETE Syntax

DELETE FROM table_name
WHERE some_column=some_value
Note: Notice the WHERE clause in the DELETE syntax. The WHERE clause specifies which record or records that should be deleted. If you omit the WHERE clause, all records will be deleted!

Delete All Rows
It is possible to delete all rows in a table without deleting the table. This means that the table structure, attributes, and indexes will be intact:
DELETE FROM table_name

or

DELETE * FROM table_name
Note: Be very careful when deleting records. You cannot undo this statement!

The LIKE operator is used in a WHERE clause to search for a specified pattern in a column.

The LIKE Operator

The LIKE operator is used to search for a specified pattern in a column.

SQL LIKE Syntax

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name LIKE pattern

We use the following SELECT statement:
SELECT * FROM Persons
WHERE City LIKE 's%'
The "%" sign can be used to define wildcards (missing letters in the pattern) both before and after the pattern.
SQL wildcards can be used when searching for data in a database.

SQL Wildcards 
SQL wildcards can substitute for one or more characters when searching for data in a database.
SQL wildcards must be used with the SQL LIKE operator.
With SQL, the following wildcards can be used:
Wildcard
Description
%
A substitute for zero or more characters
_
A substitute for exactly one character
[charlist]
Any single character in charlist
[^charlist]
or
[!charlist]
Any single character not in charlist


SQL Wildcard Examples
We have the following "Persons" table:
P_Id
LastName
FirstName
Address
City
1
Hansen
Ola
Timoteivn 10
Sandnes
2
Svendson
Tove
Borgvn 23
Sandnes
3
Pettersen
Kari
Storgt 20
Stavanger


Using the % Wildcard
Now we want to select the persons living in a city that starts with "sa" from the "Persons" table.
We use the following SELECT statement:
SELECT * FROM Persons
WHERE City LIKE 'sa%'
The result-set will look like this:
P_Id
LastName
FirstName
Address
City
1
Hansen
Ola
Timoteivn 10
Sandnes
2
Svendson
Tove
Borgvn 23
Sandnes
Next, we want to select the persons living in a city that contains the pattern "nes" from the "Persons" table.
We use the following SELECT statement:
SELECT * FROM Persons
WHERE City LIKE '%nes%'
The result-set will look like this:
P_Id
LastName
FirstName
Address
City
1
Hansen
Ola
Timoteivn 10
Sandnes
2
Svendson
Tove
Borgvn 23
Sandnes


Using the _ Wildcard
Now we want to select the persons with a first name that starts with any character, followed by "la" from the "Persons" table.
We use the following SELECT statement:
SELECT * FROM Persons
WHERE FirstName LIKE '_la'
The result-set will look like this:
P_Id
LastName
FirstName
Address
City
1
Hansen
Ola
Timoteivn 10
Sandnes
Next, we want to select the persons with a last name that starts with "S", followed by any character, followed by "end", followed by any character, followed by "on" from the "Persons" table.
We use the following SELECT statement:
SELECT * FROM Persons
WHERE LastName LIKE 'S_end_on'
The result-set will look like this:
P_Id
LastName
FirstName
Address
City
2
Svendson
Tove
Borgvn 23
Sandnes


Using the [charlist] Wildcard
Now we want to select the persons with a last name that starts with "b" or "s" or "p" from the "Persons" table.
We use the following SELECT statement:
SELECT * FROM Persons
WHERE LastName LIKE '[bsp]%'
The result-set will look like this:
P_Id
LastName
FirstName
Address
City
2
Svendson
Tove
Borgvn 23
Sandnes
3
Pettersen
Kari
Storgt 20
Stavanger
Next, we want to select the persons with a last name that do not start with "b" or "s" or "p" from the "Persons" table.
We use the following SELECT statement:
SELECT * FROM Persons
WHERE LastName LIKE '[!bsp]%'
The result-set will look like this:
P_Id
LastName
FirstName
Address
City
1
Hansen
Ola
Timoteivn 10
Sandnes


The IN Operator

The IN operator allows you to specify multiple values in a WHERE clause.

SQL IN Syntax

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name IN (value1,value2,...)

                        SELECT * FROM Persons WHERE LastName IN ('Hansen','Pettersen')

The BETWEEN operator is used in a WHERE clause to select a range of data between two values.

The BETWEEN Operator

The BETWEEN operator selects a range of data between two values. The values can be numbers, text, or dates.

SQL BETWEEN Syntax

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name
BETWEEN value1 AND value2

SELECT * FROM Persons   WHERE LastName   BETWEEN 'Hansen' AND 'Pettersen'

SQL Alias

You can give a table or a column another name by using an alias. This can be a good thing to do if you have very long or complex table names or column names.
An alias name could be anything, but usually it is short.

SQL Alias Syntax for Tables

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
AS alias_name

SQL Alias Syntax for Columns

SELECT column_name AS alias_name
FROM table_name

              SELECT po.OrderID, p.LastName, p.FirstName  FROM Persons AS p,  Product_Orders AS po
              WHERE p.LastName='Hansen' AND p.FirstName='Ola'

SQL joins are used to query data from two or more tables, based on a relationship between certain columns in these tables.

SQL JOIN
The JOIN keyword is used in an SQL statement to query data from two or more tables, based on a relationship between certain columns in these tables.
Tables in a database are often related to each other with keys.
A primary key is a column (or a combination of columns) with a unique value for each row. Each primary key value must be unique within the table. The purpose is to bind data together, across tables, without repeating all of the data in every table.
Different SQL JOINs
Before we continue with examples, we will list the types of JOIN you can use, and the differences between them.
  • JOIN: Return rows when there is at least one match in both tables
  • LEFT JOIN: Return all rows from the left table, even if there are no matches in the right table
  • RIGHT JOIN: Return all rows from the right table, even if there are no matches in the left table
  • FULL JOIN: Return rows when there is a match in one of the tables

 SQL INNER JOIN Keyword

The INNER JOIN keyword return rows when there is at least one match in both tables.

SQL INNER JOIN Syntax

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name1
INNER JOIN table_name2
ON table_name1.column_name=table_name2.column_name
PS: INNER JOIN is the same as JOIN.

SQL LEFT JOIN Keyword

The LEFT JOIN keyword returns all rows from the left table (table_name1), even if there are no matches in the right table (table_name2).

SQL LEFT JOIN Syntax

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name1
LEFT JOIN table_name2
ON table_name1.column_name=table_name2.column_name

SQL RIGHT JOIN Keyword

The RIGHT JOIN keyword returns all the rows from the right table (table_name2), even if there are no matches in the left table (table_name1).

SQL RIGHT JOIN Syntax

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name1
RIGHT JOIN table_name2
ON table_name1.column_name=table_name2.column_name
PS: In some databases RIGHT JOIN is called RIGHT OUTER JOIN.

SQL FULL JOIN Keyword

The FULL JOIN keyword return rows when there is a match in one of the tables.

SQL FULL JOIN Syntax

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name1
FULL JOIN table_name2
ON table_name1.column_name=table_name2.column_name

The SQL UNION operator combines two or more SELECT statements.

The SQL UNION Operator

The UNION operator is used to combine the result-set of two or more SELECT statements.
Notice that each SELECT statement within the UNION must have the same number of columns. The columns must also have similar data types. Also, the columns in each SELECT statement must be in the same order.

SQL UNION Syntax

SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name1
UNION
SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name2
Note: The UNION operator selects only distinct values by default. To allow duplicate values, use UNION ALL.

SQL UNION ALL Syntax

SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name1
UNION ALL
SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name2
PS: The column names in the result-set of a UNION are always equal to the column names in the first SELECT statement in the UNION.

SQL Constraints
Constraints are used to limit the type of data that can go into a table.
Constraints can be specified when a table is created (with the CREATE TABLE statement) or after the table is created (with the ALTER TABLE statement).
We will focus on the following constraints:
  • NOT NULL
  • UNIQUE
  • PRIMARY KEY
  • FOREIGN KEY
  • CHECK
  • DEFAULT

SQL NOT NULL Constraint
The NOT NULL constraint enforces a column to NOT accept NULL values.
The NOT NULL constraint enforces a field to always contain a value. This means that you cannot insert a new record, or update a record without adding a value to this field.
The following SQL enforces the "P_Id" column and the "LastName" column to not accept NULL values:
CREATE TABLE Persons
(
P_Id int NOT NULL,
LastName varchar(255) NOT NULL,
FirstName varchar(255),
Address varchar(255),
City varchar(255)
)

SQL UNIQUE Constraint
The UNIQUE constraint uniquely identifies each record in a database table.
The UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY constraints both provide a guarantee for uniqueness for a column or set of columns.

A PRIMARY KEY constraint automatically has a UNIQUE constraint defined on it.
Note that you can have many UNIQUE constraints per table, but only one PRIMARY KEY constraint per table.
 Ex :
CREATE TABLE Persons
(
P_Id int NOT NULL UNIQUE,
LastName varchar(255) NOT NULL,
FirstName varchar(255),
Address varchar(255),
City varchar(255)
)


SQL PRIMARY KEY Constraint
The PRIMARY KEY constraint uniquely identifies each record in a database table.
Primary keys must contain unique values.
A primary key column cannot contain NULL values.
Each table should have a primary key, and each table can have only ONE primary key.


CREATE TABLE Persons
(
P_Id int NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
LastName varchar(255) NOT NULL,
FirstName varchar(255),
Address varchar(255),
City varchar(255)
)

SQL FOREIGN KEY Constraint
A FOREIGN KEY in one table points to a PRIMARY KEY in another table.
Let's illustrate the foreign key with an example. Look at the following two tables:
The "Persons" table:
P_Id
LastName
FirstName
Address
City
1
Hansen
Ola
Timoteivn 10
Sandnes
2
Svendson
Tove
Borgvn 23
Sandnes
3
Pettersen
Kari
Storgt 20
Stavanger
The "Orders" table:
O_Id
OrderNo
P_Id
1
77895
3
2
44678
3
3
22456
2
4
24562
1
Note that the "P_Id" column in the "Orders" table points to the "P_Id" column in the "Persons" table.
The "P_Id" column in the "Persons" table is the PRIMARY KEY in the "Persons" table.
The "P_Id" column in the "Orders" table is a FOREIGN KEY in the "Orders" table.
The FOREIGN KEY constraint is used to prevent actions that would destroy links between tables.
The FOREIGN KEY constraint also prevents that invalid data form being inserted into the foreign key column, because it has to be one of the values contained in the table it points to.

SQL CHECK Constraint

The CHECK constraint is used to limit the value range that can be placed in a column.
If you define a CHECK constraint on a single column it allows only certain values for this column.
If you define a CHECK constraint on a table it can limit the values in certain columns based on values in other columns in the row.

SQL DEFAULT Constraint

The DEFAULT constraint is used to insert a default value into a column.
The default value will be added to all new records, if no other value is specified.
Indexes, tables, and databases can easily be deleted/removed with the DROP statement.

The DROP INDEX Statement

The DROP INDEX statement is used to delete an index in a table.

DROP INDEX Syntax for MS Access:

DROP INDEX index_name ON table_name

DROP INDEX Syntax for MS SQL Server:

DROP INDEX table_name.index_name

DROP INDEX Syntax for DB2/Oracle:

DROP INDEX index_name

DROP INDEX Syntax for MySQL:

ALTER TABLE table_name DROP INDEX index_name


The DROP TABLE Statement

The DROP TABLE statement is used to delete a table.
DROP TABLE table_name


The DROP DATABASE Statement

The DROP DATABASE statement is used to delete a database.
DROP DATABASE database_name


The TRUNCATE TABLE Statement

What if we only want to delete the data inside the table, and not the table itself?
Then, use the TRUNCATE TABLE statement:
TRUNCATE TABLE table_name

The ALTER TABLE Statement

The ALTER TABLE statement is used to add, delete, or modify columns in an existing table.

SQL ALTER TABLE Syntax

To add a column in a table, use the following syntax:
ALTER TABLE table_name
ADD column_name datatype
To delete a column in a table, use the following syntax (notice that some database systems don't allow deleting a column):
ALTER TABLE table_name
DROP COLUMN column_name
To change the data type of a column in a table, use the following syntax:
ALTER TABLE table_name
ALTER COLUMN column_name datatype

SQL Server Date Functions
The following table lists the most important built-in date functions in SQL Server:
Function
Description
Returns the current date and time
Returns a single part of a date/time
Adds or subtracts a specified time interval from a date
Returns the time between two dates
Displays date/time data in different formats




SQL has many built-in functions for performing calculations on data.

SQL Aggregate Functions
SQL aggregate functions return a single value, calculated from values in a column.
Useful aggregate functions:
  • AVG() - Returns the average value
  • COUNT() - Returns the number of rows
  • FIRST() - Returns the first value
  • LAST() - Returns the last value
  • MAX() - Returns the largest value
  • MIN() - Returns the smallest value
  • SUM() - Returns the sum

The AVG() Function

The AVG() function returns the average value of a numeric column.

SQL AVG() Syntax

SELECT AVG(column_name) FROM table_name
We use the following SQL statement:
SELECT AVG(OrderPrice) AS OrderAverage FROM Orders

The COUNT() function returns the number of rows that matches a specified criteria.

SQL COUNT(column_name) Syntax

The COUNT(column_name) function returns the number of values (NULL values will not be counted) of the specified column:
SELECT COUNT(column_name) FROM table_name

SQL COUNT(*) Syntax

The COUNT(*) function returns the number of records in a table:
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM table_name

SQL COUNT(DISTINCT column_name) Syntax

The COUNT(DISTINCT column_name) function returns the number of distinct values of the specified column:
SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT column_name) FROM table_name

 

The FIRST() Function

The FIRST() function returns the first value of the selected column.

SQL FIRST() Syntax

SELECT FIRST(column_name) FROM table_name
We use the following SQL statement:
SELECT FIRST(OrderPrice) AS FirstOrderPrice FROM Orders
NoteTip: Workaround if FIRST() function is not supported:
SELECT OrderPrice FROM Orders ORDER BY O_Id LIMIT 1

 

The LAST() Function

The LAST() function returns the last value of the selected column.

SQL LAST() Syntax

SELECT LAST(column_name) FROM table_name

The MAX() Function

The MAX() function returns the largest value of the selected column.

SQL MAX() Syntax

SELECT MAX(column_name) FROM table_name

 

The MIN() Function

The MIN() function returns the smallest value of the selected column.

SQL MIN() Syntax

SELECT MIN(column_name) FROM table_name

The SUM() Function

The SUM() function returns the total sum of a numeric column.

SQL SUM() Syntax

SELECT SUM(column_name) FROM table_name

Aggregate functions often need an added GROUP BY statement.

The GROUP BY Statement

The GROUP BY statement is used in conjunction with the aggregate functions to group the result-set by one or more columns.

SQL GROUP BY Syntax

SELECT column_name, aggregate_function(column_name)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name operator value
GROUP BY column_name
SELECT Customer,SUM(OrderPrice)  FROM Orders  GROUP BY Customer
GROUP BY More Than One Column
We can also use the GROUP BY statement on more than one column, like this:
SELECT Customer,OrderDate,SUM(OrderPrice) FROM Orders
GROUP BY Customer,OrderDate

The HAVING Clause

The HAVING clause was added to SQL because the WHERE keyword could not be used with aggregate functions.

SQL HAVING Syntax

SELECT column_name, aggregate_function(column_name)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name operator value
GROUP BY column_name
HAVING aggregate_function(column_name) operator value
SQL HAVING Example
We have the following "Orders" table:
O_Id
OrderDate
OrderPrice
Customer
1
2008/11/12
1000
Hansen
2
2008/10/23
1600
Nilsen
3
2008/09/02
700
Hansen
4
2008/09/03
300
Hansen
5
2008/08/30
2000
Jensen
6
2008/10/04
100
Nilsen
Now we want to find if any of the customers have a total order of less than 2000.
We use the following SQL statement:
SELECT Customer,SUM(OrderPrice) FROM Orders
GROUP BY Customer
HAVING SUM(OrderPrice)<2000
The result-set will look like this:
Customer
SUM(OrderPrice)
Nilsen
1700


SQL Scalar functions
SQL scalar functions return a single value, based on the input value.
Useful scalar functions:
  • UCASE() - Converts a field to upper case
  • LCASE() - Converts a field to lower case
  • MID() - Extract characters from a text field
  • LEN() - Returns the length of a text field
  • ROUND() - Rounds a numeric field to the number of decimals specified
  • NOW() - Returns the current system date and time
  • FORMAT() - Formats how a field is to be displayed

 

The UCASE() Function

The UCASE() function converts the value of a field to uppercase.

SQL UCASE() Syntax

SELECT UCASE(column_name) FROM table_name

Syntax for SQL Server

SELECT UPPER(column_name) FROM table_name

The LCASE() Function

The LCASE() function converts the value of a field to lowercase.

SQL LCASE() Syntax

SELECT LCASE(column_name) FROM table_name

Syntax for SQL Server

SELECT LOWER(column_name) FROM table_name

The MID() Function

The MID() function is used to extract characters from a text field.

SQL MID() Syntax

SELECT MID(column_name,start[,length]) FROM table_name
We use the following SELECT statement:
SELECT MID(City,1,4) as SmallCity FROM Persons

The LEN() Function

The LEN() function returns the length of the value in a text field.

SQL LEN() Syntax

SELECT LEN(column_name) FROM table_name
We use the following SELECT statement:
SELECT LEN(Address) as LengthOfAddress FROM Persons

The ROUND() Function

The ROUND() function is used to round a numeric field to the number of decimals specified.

SQL ROUND() Syntax

SELECT ROUND(column_name,decimals) FROM table_name

We use the following SELECT statement:
SELECT ProductName, ROUND(UnitPrice,0) as UnitPrice FROM Products

The NOW() Function

The NOW() function returns the current system date and time.

SQL NOW() Syntax

SELECT NOW() FROM table_name

We use the following SELECT statement:
SELECT ProductName, UnitPrice, Now() as PerDate FROM Products

The FORMAT() Function

The FORMAT() function is used to format how a field is to be displayed.

SQL FORMAT() Syntax

SELECT FORMAT(column_name,format) FROM table_name

We use the following SELECT statement:
SELECT ProductName, UnitPrice, FORMAT(Now(),'YYYY-MM-DD') as PerDate
FROM Products

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