Thursday, August 4, 2011

Oracle HRMS

Major HRMS Modules are as fallows
ü Core HR
ü Payroll
ü Recruitment

ü Recruitment
ü Employee Details
ü Training & Development
ü Assignment
ü Appraisal
ü Costing
ü Employee Termination
ü Key Flex Fields ( KFFs )
ü Descriptive Flex Fields (DFFs)
ü Jobs & Positions
ü Grades & Pay
ü Costing etc.
ü Recruitment Campaigns and Costs
ü Vacancy Management
ü Applicant Details
ü Resumes
ü Applicant Tracking
ü Skills Profiling/Matching
ü Interviews and Aptitude Tests
ü Standard Letters
Employee Details
ü Basic Details
ü Employee Number
ü Addresses
ü People Types
ü Contacts and dependents
ü Images
ü Employment and Deployment Details
ü Employment History
ü Skills Profiling etc.
Basic Details
ü Name
ü Gender
ü Person Types
ü Telephone Number
ü Picture Record
ü Contacts
ü Dependants, Beneficiaries and Other contacts
ü Date of Birth
ü National Identifier etc.
Employee Number
ü Oracle HRMS uses a unique identifier, known as Employee Number, to identify every employee in a Business Group.
ü All employees must have only one primary address on record at any point in time, but they can have any amount of secondary addresses.
ü An address must be given an address type such as home, weekend or business.
ü Each country has its own national address style.
Person Types
ü There is a need to store information about different groups of people such as employees, applicants, and people external to your enterprise.
ü The system uses person types to group people together. These types can be configured to suit the needs of an enterprise.
ü Using person types, access to the records of certain groups of people can also be restricted.
ü Each person type has a predefined system and user name.
ü You cannot create new system person types.
ü You can change the user name but not the system name.
ü You can add your own additional user person types that are mapped onto one of the system person types.
Training & Development
ü Individual Training Needs
ü Training Course Administration
ü Training Records
ü Competency Profile ( a list of the competencies held by a person and their level of proficiency in each competence. )
Employee Assignment
ü The assignment is the central concept that relates to the structures in which an employee works.
ü Each assignment has an Employee Assignment number that uniquely identifies every assignment that exists within a Business Group.
ü Assignments represent the way an employee works in the enterprise.
ü The assignment includes information about:
Effective dates
Current status
User defined key flexfields
Single Assignments in Oracle HRMS
ü When employees change their location, job or other attribute you record relocations, promotions, transfers and so on as changes to the existing assignment.
ü These changes are datetracked so that you can view the history of changes to an assignment and can make future dated changes in advance.
ü This maintains a work history for the employee.
Periods of Service and Multiple Assignments
ü If an enterprise permits employees to work in two or more different capacities at once and thereby become eligible for different benefits, you can enter multiple assignments for them in a single period of service.
ü Only one of the assignments is the primary assignment, any others are secondary.
ü An employee must have a current assignment at all times.
Ending Assignments
ü Oracle HRMS does not permit an employee to exist in the system without at least one active assignment at any point in time.
ü This means that, for an employee with just one active assignment, the only way to end the assignment is to terminate the employee.
ü For employees with more than one active assignment, you can end all but one of their assignments by selecting an assignment status of ‘End’ or ‘Terminate’ in the Assignment window.
Termination Dates
ü Actual Date - Last day of legal employment (HR)
ü Final Process Date - Last day of payroll processing (Payroll)
ü Last Period Date - Last day of the pay period in which actual date occurs
ü Projected End Date - Information only date. (Use for last working day)
Assignment Statuses
ü Active
ü Suspended
ü Terminated ( further pay processing can occur )
ü Ended ( further pay processing may not occur )
ü Appraisal & Performance Reviews
ü Review Types
ü Evaluation Criteria
ü Oracle Alerts - Business Rules for Appraisal Frequency
ü Linking Appraisal to Salary Review
ü Training Needs & Additional Skills Requirements
ü Grading
Employee Termination
ü When an employee has only one assignment, the only way to end that assignment is to terminate the employee and end the period of
Oracle HRMS also provides following functionalities:
ü Termination Reasons
ü Exit Interviews
ü Employee Information on Termination
ü Reverse Termination
ü Re-employing Ex-employee
HRMS Key Flex fields
ü HRMS uses key flex field structures to let you configure your own unique names for work structures.
ü There are 6 Key Flex fields in HRMS application.
1. Job
2. Position
3. Grade
4. People Group
5. Cost Allocation
6. Personal Analysis
Standards Features of KFFs
ü All Key Flex fields are required for setup.
ü One key structure for each business group
- Unlimited structure for Personal Analysis
ü Up to 30 segments in each structure
- Validation on each segment using a value set
ü The combination of segment values creates a unique key.
HRMS Descriptive Flex fields
ü Oracle HRMS provides predefined windows and fields to collect data
ü It uses descriptive flex fields to define your own additional information
ü Up to 30 additional fields available in every window
– User Descriptive Flex fields
ü Plus unlimited Extra Information Types for
– Locations, Jobs and Positions
– People and Assignments
– 30 segments for each Type you define
Standard Features of DFFs
ü No Descriptive Flex fields are required for setup.
ü One descriptive structure for each record.
ü Unlimited Types for Extra Information.
ü Up to 30 segments in each structure
– Validation on each segment using a value set
ü Locations are defined for each physical site where employees work.
Local or international.
Specific to one business group or shared across all.
ü In some legislation's, work locations determine taxability rules.
ü Locations are also defined for external organizations.
– Tax authorities, insurance and benefits carriers.
Jobs & Positions
ü Oracle HRMS provides these two options to suit the needs of different enterprises.
ü Jobs or Positions are used to represent the different roles that a person can perform in an enterprise.
e.g. Payroll Manger, Payroll Clerk, Consultant, Senior Engineer etc.
ü Do you manage People or Positions?
– Fixed or Flexible Roles
– May be more than one employee in the same role
ü If role continues to exist after the employee leaves then think about Positions.
ü If role ceases or is re-evaluated when the employee leaves then think about Jobs.
Additional Information for Jobs & Positions
ü Oracle HRMS lets you hold additional types of information for both Jobs and Positions.
ü Predefined types of information include:
– Valid grades
– Job Evaluation details
– Work Choices
– Competence or Skill Requirements
ü Jobs are generic roles within a Business Group
ü They are independent of any single organization
ü They exist for all organizations
e.g. The jobs Manager and Consultant could occur in many organizations.
ü Oracle HRMS lets you define your own job structure and then enter details for each job in your enterprise.
ü Position is a specific role, or function, that exists in one, and only one, organization.
ü Positions show more management reporting detail than organizations alone.
ü Position definition includes Job and Organization.
– Use job to show common job types and information across organizations.
– Use fewer organizations to show groups of positions and employees e.g. Department level.
ü Grades show relative levels of management or seniority in an enterprise.
ü May be grouped as
– Management
– Administrative
– Technical etc.
ü Often related to levels of pay.
ü Often related to Job or Position.
Grades & Pay
ü Oracle HRMS supports direct and indirect relationships between grades and pay.
ü Direct
– Use Grade Rates.
– Maximum, Minimum, and Mid-point values.
ü Indirect
– Use Pay Scales.
– Progression Points and Values.
– Grade Steps and Increments.
ü Typically, when you deploy an employee within your enterprise you want to allocate and report employee costs to individual cost centers and GL account codes.
ü These costs may be inherited from the organization where the person works, or may be split on a percentage basis between two funding bodies, or may be distributed across a set of cost centers.
ü You may also want to allocate costs for specific projects or tasks based on time-entry.
Employee Record Maintenance
ü We can maintain employee records at People Enter and Maintain Window. The Functions we can do here are
ü Creation of Employment
ü Background verification details
ü Previous Employment details
ü All personal details details of Employees.
ü Work Assignment
ü Salary Information
ü Absence information
ü Probation details
ü Tax details
ü Reporting information etc.
Career and Performance Management
ü Competence Approach
ü Special Information Types Competence Approach is used to Measure the Multiple skills of the Employees. The setups are
ü Define rating scales
ü Define Competencies
ü Define Competence Types
ü Define Appraisal Templates etc
Oracle HRMS Costing Solution
ü Oracle HRMS provides a highly configurable method for you to define your own cost structures and values
- Using the Cost Allocation Key Flexfield
ü You define the information you want to capture and the validation to go with it.
ü You define what level you want to enter, or default, the information.
ü You define the mapping between your payroll cost codes and your GL or labor distribution codes.
Costing Processes in Oracle Payroll
ü Costing process is used to accumulate payroll results to the allocated cost codes:
-Enter start and end dates for which you want to accumulate costs.
-Cost all your runs in one process or produce a costing run for each payroll run.
ü Transfer to GL process is used if you also have Oracle General Ledger (GL):
-Map the segments of your Cost Allocation key flexfield to the GL Set of Books key flexfield.
ü Results are transferred to the GL interface tables ready for loading.
Payroll is ‘list of Employees whose pay is
processed with a single frequency’.
The Key FFs in Payroll are
1. People Group KFF
2. Cost Allocation KFF
We define these two before creating BG.
Setups in Payroll
ü Define Consolidation Set
ü Define Payroll
ü Define Payment Methods
ü Define Salary Basis
ü Define Payroll Elements and other Elements
ü Link the Elements to Payroll(s)
ü Write Formulas to Elements
ü Attach Formulas to Elements
ü Link the Payroll and Salary Basis to Assignments
ü Attach Salary Admin.:Approve Function to Resp.
ü Enter Salaries to Employees
ü Enter Values to other Elements if Required
ü An Element is a specially designed data structure that is used to hold information for both Human Resources and Payroll.
ü Element Types
1. Pre-Defined
2. System-Defined
3. User-Defined
ü Element Classification
1. Earnings
2. Voluntary Deduction
3. Information
4. Pre-Tax Deductions
5. Involuntary deductions
6. Supplementary Earnings etc. (Contd.)
ü Element Processing Rules
1. Recurring
2. Non-Recurring
ü Element Termination Rules
1. Last Standard Process
2. Actual Termination
3. Final Close
Payroll Processes and Reports
ü Payroll Runs
1. Payroll Run
2. Prepayments
3. Cheque Writer
4. Generating Pay slip
5. Advance Pay Run etc.
ü Payroll Reports
1. Payment Summary Report
2. Payroll Run Results Report
3. Payroll Message Report
4. Gross to Net Summary Report
5. Payroll Statutory Calendar Report etc.
ü Payroll Corrections
1. Retry
2. Rollback Run
3. Payroll Reversal
Extra Information Types(EIT)
ü EITs Can be defined by using Descriptive Flex fields. The EITs available in HRMS and Payroll are:
ü Extra Location Information
ü Extra Job Information
ü Extra Position Information
ü Extra person Information
ü Extra Element Information
ü Further Assignment Information and
ü Extra Organization Information

Multiple Organizations In Oracle Applications

Setting Up a Multiple Organization Enterprise

1. Develop the Organization Structure

2. Define Sets of Books

3. Define Locations

4. Define Business Groups (optional)

5. Associate Responsibilities with Business Groups

6. Define Organizations

7. Define Organization Relationships

8. Define Responsibilities

9. Set MO: Operating Unit Profile Option

10. Convert to Multiple Organization Architecture

11. Change Order Management Profile Option

12. Set Profile Options Specific to Operating Units

13. Define Inventory Organization Security (optional)

14. Implement the Applications Products

15. Secure Balancing Segment Values by Legal Entity (optional)

16. Run the Multi–Org Setup Validation Report (recommended)

17. Implement Document Sequencing (optional)

18. Define Intercompany Relations (optional)

19. Set Top Reporting Level Profile Option (optional)

20. Set Conflict Domains (optional)


Oracle HRMS family suite?

Oracle HRMS consists of the following applications. These are all separate products powerfully integrated into one application family.

Ø Oracle Human Resources

Ø Oracle Payroll

Ø Oracle Advanced Benefits

Ø Oracle Self–Service Human Resources (SSHR)

Ø There are other applications related to the Oracle HRMS family suite:

Ø Oracle Training Administration

Ø Application Data Exchange and Hierarchy Diagrammers

Ø Statutory Sick Pay and Statutory Maternity Pay (UK only)

Ø Oracle Time Management

Ø Oracle Business Intelligence System

Volume 1: Using Oracle HRMS – The Fundamentals

Enterprise Modeling

Rather than using an artificial model of your enterprise, you can customize Oracle HRMS so it accurately reflects the organization of work and management of people within the enterprise. Using Oracle HRMS you can model the jobs, positions and grades to reflect the structures and culture within your enterprise.

Organization Management

In addition to your enterprise model, you need to represent all the different organizations that make up your enterprise. You can set up and represent:

§ All the default information applicable across your enterprise

§ The physical work locations of your employees

§ External organizations of importance to human resource management, such as recruitment agencies, insurance providers and tax authorities

§ Reporting lines and other relationships among these organizations. You represent these relationships by building organization hierarchies

Defining a Payroll

One of the most important features of Oracle HRMS is the ability to define payrolls. A payroll is a set of employees whose pay you process with a single frequency, for example, weekly or monthly. You can define as many payrolls as you require to meet the pay policies of your enterprise. You put an employee on a payroll by making an assignment to the payroll. You can also assign employees to other employee groups: for example, groups to indicate membership of a union or social club.

Cost Analysis

Oracle HRMS enables you to enter the labor costs associated with your employees. You can use the Cost Allocation key flexfield to set up account and cost centers against which you want to collect costs, and the levels you want to record costs. Using Oracle Payroll, you can automatically accumulate these costs.

Workers Compensation (US ONLY)

Every state has a Workers Compensation program to provide employees with insurance coverage for work–related injuries. Employees are liable for the premiums for this insurance and in some states may also pay an additional percentage. Oracle HRMS enables you calculate and manage Workers Compensation for each of your Government reporting Entities (GREs) and for jobs within them.

Volume 2: Managing People Using Oracle HRMS

Employee Management

Oracle HRMS provides you with an easy, efficient and flexible employee management system that enables you to organize employees exactly as you want. You can hold a wide range of personal information, such as medical details, work schedules and preferred language for correspondence, as well as the basics such as date of birth, employee number and addresses. You can also enter personal contacts, including dependants and beneficiaries and inquire and report on people held on the system. You also need to record and manage how people work for your enterprise. This information is the substance of the relationship, or contract, an enterprise has with each of its employees. It associates the employee to the enterprise’s work structures and compensations and benefits policies.


Oracle HRMS provides comprehensive recruitment support, enabling you to integrate all your recruitment processes, from identifying vacancies to hiring new employees. Using Oracle HRMS, you can set up your recruitment procedures exactly as your enterprise requires. In particular, you have flexible control over the following key areas:

· Recruitment and selection procedures

· Security of applicant information

· Handling of bulk applications

· Generation of standard letters to applicants at different stages of the recruitment process

Career Management and Succession Planning

Oracle HRMS career and succession management functionality is built upon the principles of performance management and the competence approach. The highly configurable framework of Oracle HRMS enables you to define all the components of a performance management system to meet the needs of your enterprise. You can define competencies, behavioral descriptions, multiple types of appraisal and competence evaluation, performance ratings and career and succession plans.


An essential activity in the cycle is budgeting your human resources. Using Oracle HRMS you can define non–monetary budgets, such as head count and full–time equivalent, that are based on your work structures.

Compliance and Government Reporting (US ONLY)

In the US, an increasingly important responsibility of the human resource function is the maintenance of information for and production of government–mandated HR reporting, such as EEO–1 and OSHA reporting.

Volume 3: Running Your Payroll Using Oracle HRMS

Wage Attachments

Oracle Payroll enables employers to meet the statutory requirement to deduct sums from the earnings of employees who have incurred court debts or fines.

Taxes and Social Insurance

Oracle Payroll enables you to deduct Tax and Insurance contributions from employee earnings. For example, in the UK, PAYE is used to collect income tax from all taxable income paid to employees.

Payroll Run and Other Processes

The payroll run is the main engine of payroll processing. Oracle Payroll enables you to run a payroll and conduct post–processing on a payroll that has completed successfully. When the payroll run finishes, further processing determines the distribution of each employee’s net pay and assembles costing information for transfer to other systems. Costing processes and other post–run processes sort the information by different accounts and work structures, and transfer post–run costing data to the general ledger and other systems. You can also enter subsequent changes and corrections for a payroll that has not completed successfully.

Processing Earnings and Deductions (US users)

Oracle Payroll includes several standard earnings and deductions in its startup data. You initiate the additional earning types, non–payroll payments and non–tax deductions you require for processing in the payroll run, in accordance with your own policies relating to compensations and benefits.

Other Earnings (US users)

You can set up other earnings in Oracle Payroll to define your own payroll elements or non–payroll payments. For example, other earnings could pay for work performed at a different location that has different tax rules.

Volume 4: Managing Compensation and Benefits Using Oracle HRMS

Compensation Setup, Entry and Analysis

Oracle HRMS provides an integrated solution for Human Resources and Payroll. Therefore your setup, entry and analysis of compensation and benefits support both compensation management and payroll management.

Basic, Standard and Advanced Benefits

Oracle Human Resources includes Standard Benefits, to help you set up and manage benefits plans and programs. For an additional license fee, you can implement the extra features of Oracle Advanced Benefits.

· Standard Benefits enables you to set up a hierarchy of benefit offerings (program, plan type, plan, option), and supports program–based enrollment for fixed and core–plus–options arrangements, self–service enrollment, rules–based plan eligibility, and exporting data to a third party administrator.

· Oracle Advanced Benefits is the full solution to benefits administration for employers who administer their own benefits, including flexible benefit plans. It uses all the features of Standard Benefits and provides additional functions such as life event triggered enrollments and communications, online life event processing using Oracle Workflow, processing of flexible spending account claims, and what–if eligibility analysis. If you have no requirement for hierarchical administration of benefit plans, you can simply define individual basic benefits in the same way as salary and other compensation elements. US users can record coverage for dependants and beneficiaries and administer continued coverage for basic benefits plans. Be aware however, that basic benefit definitions cannot be upgraded to Standard Benefits. You would need to redefine your benefits if you wanted to use standard or advanced benefits administration features at a later date.

Salary Administration

Using the Salary Administration functionality in Oracle HRMS you can manage efficiently the basic remuneration that employees receive. You can enter salary amounts or wage rates for all new employees to take effect immediately. You can also enter proposals for salary changes and identify the various components making up the changes. Once you have proposed salary changes, you can approve and implement the proposed changes quickly and easily.

Absence Management and PTO Accruals

To manage all your employees’ absences from work, you can:

Ø Identify the types of absences your enterprise recognizes

Ø Record the reasons, dates and times for projected and actual absences, and maintain records of time taken for each absence type

Ø Group related absence types together for reporting and analysis

Ø Set up and administer PTO accrual plans, whereby employees can accrue time off for vacation or sick leave

Ø Calculate Sick Pay and Maternity Pay according to statutory legislation since the rules for accrual and use of paid time off vary from plan to plan, the rules are available within formulas for you to customize and extend as required.

Volume 5: Customizing, Reporting and System Administration in Oracle HRMS

Extending and Customizing Oracle HRMS

You can extend and customize Oracle HRMS so it works exactly how your enterprise does. For example, you can add your own fields to forms, define lookups, create menus and task flows tailored to your users and restrict data displayed on some forms.


One of the most important tasks of the system administrator is managing security. Security is a major concern of all payroll and human resource departments. Oracle HRMS includes a planned system for keeping information secure and preventing unauthorized access. The system enables you to control access to records, windows and functions by matching each employee’s access level to his or her work responsibilities.


The system administrator takes responsibility for the day to day administration of one or more Oracle Applications. Ideally, they should be from within the user group and know how the system has been defined. Their role is clearly defined within a specific set of practical tasks, which Oracle HRMS enables you to perform quickly and efficiently.

Information Access

The information held in Oracle HRMS is an extremely valuable resource for your enterprise. You can use the same information in a variety of different ways depending on your business purpose. For example, you can use Oracle HRMS information in support of each of the following business activities:

· Performing a full range of HR functions on a day–to–day basis

· Reporting on HR activities

· Performing what–if exercises to determine the viability of different alternatives

· Performing strategic planning with the Oracle Business Intelligence System

Letter Generation

Standard letters enable you to manage your enterprise’s recruitment or enrollment activities more easily. Using Oracle Human Resources you can issue standard letters to applicants and students respectively, triggered by changes in assignment or enrollment status. For example, you can set up a standard enrollment confirmation letter that is triggered when a student’s enrollment status is set to Placed or you can set up a rejection letter that is triggered when an applicant’s assignment status is set to Rejected.

Volume 6: Using Oracle FastFormula

Oracle FastFormula is a tool that helps you customize your system. For example, it enables you to specify elements in payroll runs, you can have user–defined validation of element inputs and you can also create rules for PTO and accrual plans. It provides a simple way to write formulas using English words and basic mathematical functions. You can use information from your database in formulas without learning the database structure or a programming language.

Volume 7: Implementing Oracle Self–Service Human Resources (SSHR)

Oracle Self–Service Human Resources (SSHR) provides self–service human resource management for managers and employees. Using an Intranet and a web browser employees and their managers now have easy to use and intuitive access to personal and career management functionality.

Planning Your Implementation

Implementation Steps

The flexibility of Oracle HRMS enables you develop an implementation project plan that meets your own specific business needs for both Oracle Human Resources, Oracle Payroll, Oracle Advanced Benefits and Oracle Self–Service Human Resources (SSHR). With Oracle HRMS you choose the functions you want to implement initially. You implement other functions when you need to use them. For example, you might decide to implement initially for HR users and then to add payroll-processing capabilities in a subsequent phase. Alternatively, you might decide to implement payroll functions during your initial phase. You could choose to extend your range of HR information and functions later. Decision making is an important part of any implementation process and before you begin to customize Oracle HRMS you must decide how you want to use the system. Adopting a staged, or incremental, approach to implementation lets you focus on those areas of the system you want to use.

Implementation Checklist

Use the following checklists to record which parts of Oracle HRMS you want to use. Then refer to the implementation flowcharts to see the high level steps you must complete for each business function you have chosen to implement.

Ø Administration: Includes key and descriptive flexfields, Extra Information Types (EITs), currencies, “View All” HRMS User, lookups and Application Data Exchange (ADE).

Ø Work Structures: Includes organizations, jobs, positions, grades and payrolls

Ø Compensation and Benefits: Includes compensation elements, input value validation, balances, formulas, salary administration, absence management/accruals of paid time off and element sets.

Ø Total Compensation: Includes online benefits services, benefits eligibility, eligibility factors, life events, program setup and flex credits calculations.

Ø People and Assignments: Includes person types, assignment statuses and special personal information.

Ø Specific Business Functions: Includes GRE Federal and State Identification Numbers, workers compensation, human resource budgets, evaluation systems and requirements matching.

Ø Career and Succession Management: Includes recruitment, career management, evaluation and appraisals and succession planning.

Ø Control: Includes reports, letter generation, customization, task flows, user security, audit requirements and iHelp.

Implementation Flowchart

Some of the steps outlined in this section are Required, and some are Optional. Required with Defaults means that the setup functionality comes with predefined, default values in the database; however, you

should review those defaults and decide whether to change them to suit your business needs. If you want or need to change them, you should perform that setup step. You need to perform Optional steps only if you plan to use the related feature or complete certain business functions.

Implementation Steps

There are 269 steps suggested by Oracle that needs to be followed to implement Oracle HRMS.

Broadly they are grouped into 47 steps

1. Define Key Flexfields

2. Define Descriptive Flexfields

3. Define Extra Information Types (EITs)

4. Administration

5. Application Data Exchange (ADE) and Hierarchy Diagrammers

6. Define Organization Structures

7. Define Roles

8. Define Grade Related Information

9. Define Payroll Information

10. Define Input Value Validation

11. Define Compensation and Benefits

12. Define Earnings and Deductions for Payroll Processing

13. Customize the Generated Definitions

14. Salary Administration

15. Absence Management and Accruals of Paid Time Off (PTO)

16. Define Element Sets

17. Basic Benefits

18. Total Compensation - Administration

19. Benefits Eligibility

20. Derived Eligibility Factors

21. Eligibility Profiles

22. Define Life Events (Advanced Benefits)

23. Program Setup

24. Enrollment Requirements

25. Activity Rates and Coverage Calculations

26. Reporting Groups

27. Flex Credit Calculations (Advanced Benefits)

28. Define Benefit Balances

29. Define Online Benefits Services

30. Person Types and Assignment Statuses

31. Special Personal Information (Personal Analysis Key Flexfield Structures)

32. New Hire Reporting

33. Workers Compensation

34. Human Resource Budgets

35. Evaluation Systems

36. Requirements Matching

37. Recruitment

38. Career Management

39. Evaluations and Appraisals

40. Career and Succession Planning

41. Define Reports

42. Standard Letter Generation

43. Customize Oracle HRMS

44. Create Task Flows

45. Define Menus

46. Define User Security

47. Define Audit Requirements

Oracle HRMS Data Pump

Oracle HRMS has a set of predefined APIs that are business process related and you are strongly advised always to use these APIs to load data. The predefined APIs enforce all the business rules in the system and guarantee the integrity of any data loaded into the system.

The Oracle HRMS Data Pump supports rapid implementation by simplifying and standardizing the common tasks associated with loading batch data into the Oracle HRMS tables. This is done by providing a set of predefined batch tables and standard processes that simplify the tasks of data–loading using the supported APIs.

With the Oracle Data Pump you:

1. Map the data items from your external system to the parameter values of the appropriate APIs. Because you map data to the parameters of the APIs you do not need to know the complexity of the HRMS data model. For example, to create an employee you need to co–ordinate inserting data into multiple tables. The create_employee API does this automatically, using the parameter values you pass in. A special feature of the Data Pump is that you can use user values in place of system IDs for the API parameters. The Data Pump translates these automatically.

2. Load your data into a single generic batch lines table. (There is also a single batch header table to help you manage your batch loading processes.) The Data Pump works with a single generic batch lines table. It generates a specific view for each API so that you can easily review and update the data for each API using the parameter names for the API. Also, there are PL/SQL interface routines to insert your external data into the generic batch lines table.

3. Run a standard process that automatically calls the appropriate API for each line of data in the batch table.

Components of Data Pump

1. Meta–Mapper Process: This process generates the specific PL/SQL procedures and views for each of the supported API modules you want to use. Use the Meta–Mapper to generate a set of views that you can use to examine or update data in the batch tables. For example you might want to correct data or change the order in which data is loaded.

2. Batch Header Table and Batch Lines Table

Use these two tables to hold the header and lines information from your external data.



3. PL/SQL Routines: Use the predefined and generated PL/SQL routines to insert your external or legacy data into the batch lines table.

4. The Data Pump Engine Process: The Data Pump Engine process is a standard concurrent process that performs the actual data validation and loading operations. It takes two parameters:

• Batch name

• Processing mode

Special Features of Data Pump

1. User Keys : Data Pump enables you to define the combination of data items that uniquely identify records for loading into Oracle HRMS. For example, when you are loading data for a Person, you could use a combination of Last Name, First Name, Date of Birth, and Gender to identify that person uniquely in Oracle HRMS.

2. Use Actual Values : In nearly all cases you can load data using actual names or values without having to identify a system value in Oracle HRMS.

3. Automatic Parallel Processing Of Batch Load Process: Data Pump automatically supports parallel processing on multi–processor systems without any extra code.

4. Explicit User Ordering of Operations: When loading batch lines with related data you must perform some operations in a strict sequence. For example, entering salary information for an employee must take place after the employee record has been created.

5. Validation Mode Operation: When you submit the Data Pump concurrent process you can choose to run it in validation mode. This enables you to review errors in batches or in related records in a batch and to change them before any of them are committed to the HRMS database.

6. Processing Batches: When you run Data Pump the process only loads data that has not already been processed successfully.

7. Logging Options: There are many logging options with Data Pump that help you find errors when running the process.

Using Data Pump

To use Data Pump, follow this sequence of tasks:

1. Decide which of the supported API modules you require for loading your external data and run the Meta–Mapper to generate interface procedures for these APIs.

2. Use the predefined PL/SQL routines and those created by the Meta–Mapper to transfer your external data into the Data Pump tables.

3. Optional. Run Data Pump in validation mode to check and correct data before it is loaded.

4. Run Data Pump to load data from batch tables into the Oracle HRMS tables.

5. Review any errors and correct causes.

6. If necessary, rerun Data Pump to load corrected batch lines.

7. Optional. Purge data from the batch tables.

Running the Meta–Mapper

Based on your implementation you might decide that you do not need to use all of the predefined APIs to load external data. Run the Meta–Mapper for all APIs or for each single API that you select. The Meta–Mapper generates a specific PL/SQL package and view for each API.

Use the following SQL*PLUS command to generate packages and views for all APIs:

sql> execute hr_pump_meta_mapper.generateall;

Use the following SQL*PLUS command to generate packages and views for one API:

sql> execute hr_pump_meta_mapper.generate( <package_name>,<procedure_name>);

For example: sql> execute hr_pump_meta_mapper.generate( ’hr_employee_api’,’create_employee’ );

View Generated by the Meta–Mapper

For each API the Meta–Mapper generates a view on the HR_PUMP_BATCH_LINES table that reflects the parameters of the API.

PL/SQL Package Generated by the Meta–Mapper

The Meta–Mapper also generates a separate package for each API to make it easier for you to load data to the batch lines table or to review the content of the table for specific APIs.

For example, the create_employee package hrdpp_create_employee contains two procedures:

• insert_batch_lines

Meta–Mapper Help Procedure

The Meta–Mapper package also includes a help procedure hr_pump_meta_mapper help that returns information on the generated PL/SQL package and view names, and the batch lines table parameter values for a given API.

Loading Data Into the Batch Tables

The Meta–Mapper generates a specific PL/SQL package and view for each API. Use these PL/SQL interface procedures and views for loading data into the batch tables, except where stated otherwise in this document. It is particularly important that inserts are performed exclusively through the interfaces. There are two reasons for this:

• Using the PL/SQL procedure insulates you from the complexities of the underlying schema.

• Using the PL/SQL procedure insulates you from any schema changes that might be made in any future release. This is important if you intend to use Data Pump on a continuing basis.

The Batch Interface Tables

The main objective of the interface design was to keep everything as simple as possible. The result is that Data Pump only has one batch header and one batch lines table for loading data for all APIs. Views are generated by the Meta–Mapper with specific column names for each API. Each row of the batch lines table holds the reference to an API and data values. Data Pump executes each API with the data passed in as parameters.

Utility Procedures Available With Data Pump

This section lists the utility procedures that are provided with the Data Pump. All the procedures are in the HR_PUMP_UTILS package.

create_batch_header : Creates a batch header row. This should be used to create the row rather than direct insert.

add_user_key : Creates a user key for use with Data Pump API calls.

modify_user_key : The main purpose of modify_user_key is to fix an incorrect user key created by add_user_key.

APIs Supported by Data Pump








































































DateTrack adds the dimension of time to an application’s database. The value of a DateTracked record depends on the date from which you are viewing the data. For example, querying an employee’s annual salary with an effective date of 12–JUL–1992 might give a different value than a query with an effective date of 01–DEC–1992. However, the application and the user see the employee’s pay as a single record.

*** The term” today” refers to the effective date set by the user.

To make a table date tracked table add EFFECTIVE_START_DATE (not null) and EFFECTIVE_END_DATE (not null) columns to the table. All date tracked table will have these columns.

Oracle Fast Formula

Oracle Fast Formula is a simple way to write formulas using English words and basic mathematical functions. You can use information from your database in formulas without learning the database structure or a programming language.

Data Types Both variables and constants can be one of three data types:

· numeric

· text

· date

There are three classes of variable in Oracle FastFormula:

Local Variable Variables that occur in a single formula only.

Global Value Values that can occur in any formula.

Database Item Items that exist in the application’s database.

Components in a Sample Formula

Functions In FastFormula :

Text Functions

DEBUG(expr) This function accepts a string and uses a DBMS_OUTPUT statement to output the string to the console.

CHR(n) The CHR function returns the character having the binary equivalent to number operand n in the database character set.

GREATEST(expr, expr [, expr] . . .)

INITCAP(expr) The INITCAP function returns the expression expr with the first letter of each word in uppercase, all other letters in lowercase.


LEAST (expr, expr [, expr] . . .)

LENGTH(expr) The LENGTH function returns the number of characters in the text string operand expr.

LOWER (expr) The LOWER function returns the string operand expr with all letters lowercase.

LPAD (expr, n [,pad])

LTRIM (expr [, set])

Numeric Functions

ABS(n), FLOOR(n), GREATEST(n, n [, n] . . .), LEAST(n, n [, n] . . .), POWER(m ,n), ROUND(n [, m]),

TRUNC(n [, m])

Date Functions

ADD_DAYS(date, n) , ADD_MONTHS(date, n), ADD_YEARS(date, n) ,

GREATEST(date1, date2[, date3] . . .) , LAST_DAY(d) , LEAST(date1, date2 [, date3] . . .) , DAYS_BETWEEN(date1, date2) , MONTHS_BETWEEN(date1, date2) .

Data Conversion Functions

Functions for Accrual Type Formulas

CALCULATE_PAYROLL_PERIODS This function takes no parameters; it uses the payroll id context. It calculates the number of payroll periods in one year for that payroll, and sets the global variable PAYROLL_YEAR_NUMBER_OF_PERIODS to that value.

GET_ABSENCE(start date, calculation date) This function calculates the total amount of absence contributing to an accrual plan between two dates.

Functions to Call a Formula

CALL_FORMULA (formula name) This function runs a named formula with no inputs and no outputs.

LOOP_CONTROL(formula name) This function repeatedly calls another formula, which must have the return parameter ’CONTINUE_LOOP’.

Functions to Set and Get Globals

SET_TEXT(variable name, value)

SET_NUMBER(variable name, value)

SET_DATE(variable name, value)

GET_TEXT(variable name)

GET_NUMBER(variable name)

GET_DATE(variable name)

CLEAR_GLOBALS This function sets to NULL the value of all global variables that were set using SET_TEXT, SET_NUMBER, and SET_DATE. There are no inputs. It returns 0 if successful and 1 if not successful.

REMOVE_GLOBALS This function removes all global variables. There are no inputs. It returns 0 if successful and 1 if not successful.

ISNULL(variable name) A set of three functions that test whether a text, numeric, or date value is NULL. Returns Y if the value is NULL and N otherwise.


A component in the calculation of employee pay. Each element represents a compensation or benefit type, such as salary, wages, stock purchase plans, and pension contributions.

Payroll Processes

Oracle Payroll provides you with the flexibility you require to run your regular pay cycle in the best way to meet your business needs. To do this, we provide you with a modular batch process called PYUGEN. PYUGEN is a generic process that can perform several actions. The Oracle Payroll system administrator specifies which actions it can perform by registering it with certain parameter sets and defaults. The parameter identifies the specific payroll process to execute. These are predefined in Oracle Payroll; the values are not visible to the user.

Pay Cycle Sequence

Overview of the Payroll Processes

The first process you run in your pay cycle is the Payroll Run process. This process calculates the gross to net payment for your employees. After the successful completion of the Payroll Run, you start the Pre–Payments process. This process distributes employees’ pay over the payment methods employees have requested. It also allocates payments to third parties. The next step is to start one of the payment processes to produce payments for employees:

• MAGTAPE (for example BACS in the UK or NACHA in the US)

• CHEQUE (Cheque Writer or Check Writer)

• CASH (Cash) – for UK only

The payment processes take the unpaid prepayment values allocated to each payment type and produce the required payment file. It is these processes that actually produce payments for employees. The Costing process allocates payroll run results to cost segments. The Transfer to the General Ledger process transfers cost information to Oracle General Ledger interface tables.

In addition to this regular cycle of activities there are other processes that support the correction and completion of each cycle. These include:

• Mark for Retry

• Retry

• Rollback

• QuickPay

• RetroPay

• Advance Pay

• Archive

1. Payroll Run Process: The Payroll Run process calculates the gross to net payment for your employees.

2. Pre–Payments Process: The Pre–Payments process prepares the payments generated by the Payroll Run for payment. It prepares payments for each assignment and inserts the results into PAY_PRE_PAYMENTS for each payment method for an assignment.

The Pre–Payments process also:

• Calculates the amount of money to pay through each payment method for an assignment, and converts any currency if the payment method is in a foreign currency.

• Handles the preparation of third party payments.

3. Payment Processes: After running the Pre–Payments process to prepare the results for payment (according to the payment methods), you produce payments for your employees. With Oracle Payroll, there are three types of payment process that you can run:

• The Magnetic Tape process – MAGTAPE

• The Cheque process – CHEQUE

• The Cash Payments process – CASH (UK only)

4 Costing Process

After running the payroll processes, you start the post–run process, Costing. The Costing process accumulates results for transfer to the General Ledger and other applications. This process sorts the run results in accordance with the information you have selected from the Cost Allocation flexfield at all levels, by the following :

• Company

• Set of Books

• Cost Center

• General Ledger

• Labour Distribution Accounts

5 Transfer to the General Ledger Process

After you have run the post–run process Costing (which accumulates costing results), you are ready to transfer the results to the General Ledger or other systems. This process can be submitted using multiple threads, in the same way as the Payroll Run.

The Payroll Archive Reporter (PAR) Process

Using the Payroll Archive Reporting (PAR) process, you can produce complex payroll reports on employee assignments on a periodic basis, for example at the end of the tax year, or for each tax quarter. You can submit these reports to a tax authority or other governmental body using magnetic tape.

Initial Balance Loading for Oracle Payroll

This is functionality available with Oracle Payroll to assist in the loading of initial balance values from an existing payroll system. Whether you are implementing Oracle Payroll for the first time, or upgrading from an earlier release you will need to set initial values for your legislative balances. It is essential for the accurate calculation of legislated deductions in Oracle Payroll that the initial values for these balances are correct. This section shows you how to set up and load these initial balance values before you begin to process payrolls. After you have begun processing payrolls you may need to repeat this process for additional user balances you define in the future.

Steps : There are three basic steps involved in loading initial balance values:

1. Define an element and input value to feed each specific balance

2. Set up the initial balance values in the tables



3. Run the Initial Balance Upload process

• Use the SRS window.

• Use Validate, Transfer, Undo and Purge modes as needed.

The normal sequence for using these modes to load initial balances is shown in the following diagram :

Reports and Processes in Oracle HRMS

Reports ( 34 )

1 Absences Report : Absence details for an employee or organization, for some or all absence types.




2 Assignment Status Report : All employees, applicants or both assigned to selected work structures.




3 Audit Report (Payroll only) : Selects person, employee or applicant, assignment, element, recurring or non-recurring status. Shows Business Group, GRE, assignment details, person entering data (responsibility), input date, effective change date, details of person affected. Lists all fields changed, with input date and effective date, old value and new value, responsibility, workstation address.

4 Cost Breakdown Report (Payroll only) : Summarized costing totals for a specified costing process and summarized costing totals for a particular consolidation set or payroll over a specified interval.

5 Current and Projected Progression Point Values Report : The expected results of running the Increment Progression Points process, that is the projected. point and value changes for a group of employees.

6 Element Link Details Report (Payroll only) : The eligibility criteria for an element or group of elements.



7 Element Result Listing (Payroll only) : Run results processed for a particular element over a defined period, and run results for selected input values of each employee's last assignment process.



8 Employee Increment Results Report : The actual results of running the Increment Progression Points process, that is progression point and value changes for a group of employees.

9 Employee Organization Movements Report PAYRPEMV: New hires, terminations, transfer in and transfer out of a selected organization, or organization hierarchy.

10 Employee Payroll Movements Report (Payroll only) : New hires, terminations, transfers in and transfer out of a selected payroll.

11 Employee Summary Report PERRPPSM: Addresses, contacts, periods of service, assignments, special information, personal payment methods and element entries for a selected employee.

12 FBT Report: Displays Fringe Benefits Tax information for a cost center.

13 Full Applicant Details PERRPFP2: Applications and applicant interviews for one applicant.

14 Full Assignment Details PERRPFP3: Assignment information including periods of service, payment methods, and element entries for one employee.

15 Full Person Details PERRPFP1: Addresses and information entered in the Person window such as name, date of birth, nationality and work telephone number for one employee.

16 Full Personal Details Report Set : Person details, applicant details, assignment details and work details for one employee.

17 Full Work Details PERRPFP4: Miscellaneous work information including special information, absences, recruitment activities and contacts for one employee.

18 Job and Position Skills Matching Report: Lists of employees, applicants or both that meet some or all skill requirements of a job or position.

19 Leave Liability Report (Australia) : Displays leave balances for employees.

20 Organization Hierarchy Report PERRPROH: The organizations and optionally their managers below a selected position in a particular hierarchy.

21 Pay Advice (Australia): Generates pay advice for all employees for a specified payroll and period.

22 Payroll Message Report (Payroll only) : Display messages for processes connected to specified payrolls.

23 Payroll Reconciliation Report (Australia) : Generates payroll reconciliation for a specified payroll period.

24 Position Hierarchy Report-PERRPRPH: The positions and optionally their holders below a selected position in a particular hierarchy.

25 Requisition Summary Report-PERRPREQ: Applicants and their interview schedules for a selection of vacancies.

26 Salary Review Report-PERWISAL: Current, past and proposed salaries for a selected list of employees.

27 Staffing Budget Details Report-PERRPRBD: Actual staffing level with budgeted levels over a specified period.

28 Superannuation Contribution Report: Identifies monthly figures for superannuation salary and employer superannuation guarantee contributions.

29 Terminations Report PERRPRTM: The number of employees from selected organizations leaving your enterprise within a particular period, and the reason for leaving.

30 Void Payments PAYRPVPRUS: Details of cancelled cheque payments

31 Organizational Position Summary Report: Lists the budget status for all positions within a Position Control Organization. Lists the status of all Positions that are part of a specific Budget.

32 Position Element Detail Report : Lists the budget status for all budgeted elements for a specific Position and Organization.

33 Position Element Summary Report PQHWSPCH: Lists the budget status for an element for all positions in the Business Group.

34 Position Summary Report PQHWSOPS : Lists the budget status of all Positions in a specific Organization.

Processes ( 32 )

1 Annual and Long Service Leave Liability Process (Australia) : Extracts information used in the Leave Liability Report.

2 Audit Trail Update Tables Process: This process is used to set up audit trail on selected tables.

3 Audit Trail Update Datetracked Tables Process: This process is used to set up audit trail on selected datetracked tables.

4 BEE Batch Process (Purge) : This process is used to delete a batch from the BEE tables on completion of the concurrent request.

5 BEE Batch Process (Validate) : This process is used to test each batch line against predefined rules about element entries, and against any additional validation procedures that you have created.

6 BEE Batch Process (Transfer) : This process is used to create element entries in the Oracle HRMS Entries table from the Existing entries in the BEE temporary tables.

7 BEE Batch Process (Rollback) : This process is used to completely remove a BEE transfer, provided you have not purged the batch from the BEE tables

8 Bulk Compile Formulas: Run this process to compile all of your formulas.

9 Cheque Writer Process (Payroll only) : This process is used to write sequences of cheques for your payroll run.

10 Close Action Items Process (Advanced Benefits Only) : Run this process before the Close Enrollments Process to close any open action items that are required or optional for the persons you select.

11 Close Enrollments Process (Advanced Benefits Only) : Run this process to close a person's enrollment after elections have been made.

12 Communications Triggers Process (Advanced Benefits) : Use the communications triggers process to generate communications for persons who meet the selection criteria that you specify.

13 Costing Process (Payroll only) : Generates journal entries for your ledgers and costing information relating to labor costs.

14 Default Enrollment Process (Advanced Benefits only) : Run this process to enroll participants into the default benefit plan when participants have not made an election.

15 Dependent Eligibility Process (Advanced Benefits only) : Run this process for those benefit plans that include an age factor in determining dependent eligibility.

16 Direct Entry (Australian BECS Format) Process: Produces a payment file for all employees.

17 Extract Process (Advanced Benefits only) : Run the extract process to save the output of your system extract to the directory and file that you specified in your extract definition.

18 Enable Multiple Security Groups Process: Run this process when you first set up single responsibility security.

19 Forms Configuration - Download Template: Run this process to download one or more templates to a data file.

20 Forms Configuration - Upload Template: Run this process to upload a template to enable you to use it with the Forms Configurator tool.

21 Grant Permissions to Roles Process (ROLEGEN) : Dynamically grants select permissions on Oracle HRMS tables and views to the HR_REPORTING_USER role.

22 Generate Secure User Process (SECGEN) : Run this process when you create a new security profile that references a reporting user.

23 Security List Maintenance Process (LISTGEN) :This process is usually run every night to maintain the lists of organizations, positions, payrolls, employees, and applicants that security profile holders can access.

24 Participation Batch Process: Life Event (Advanced Benefits Only) : Run this process to determine eligibility and electable choices for benefits participants based on a life event you select.

25 Participation Batch Process: Scheduled (Advanced Benefits Only) : Run this process to determine eligibility and electable choices for benefits participants based on a scheduled enrollment event.

26 Participation Batch Process: Selection (Advanced Benefits Only) : Run this process to determine eligibility for benefits participants.This process does not create electable choices.

27 PrePayments Process (Payroll Only) : Use this process to distribute employee pay over more than one payment method using either a percentage or monetary split.

28 Retry Payroll Process: Retry a payroll process again.

29 RetroPay Process: Enables you to make back pay adjustments.

30 Synchronize Positions Process: This process updates the non-datetracked Positions table (PER_ALL_POSITIONS_F) with changes made to the datetracked table (HR_ALL_POSITIONS_F). When you run the process, any datetracked changes with an effective date on or before today are applied to the non-datetracked table.

31 Transfer to GL Process: Transfers the results of the costing process to the Accounting flexfield of Oracle General Ledger.

Using Oracle Training Administration

Oracle Training Administration (OTA) is designed to support the full range of business activities associated with training and development. Its purpose is to ensure continuous improvement of your employees’ abilities to meet current and future objectives in a cost–effective way.

The types of event you can create in Oracle Training Administration are:

· Scheduled

· One time

· Program

· Development

Oracle Time Management Technical Reference Manual

Oracle Application Object Library is a collection of pre–built application components and facilities for building Oracle Applications and extensions to Oracle Applications.

Oracle Application Object Library Tables generally have names beginning with FND_%.

Time and Attendance Management

Oracle Time Management provides a central point for collecting, editing, balancing, and managing time and attendance data prior to submitting to Batch Element Entry(BEE) for processing. It also automatically generates (autogens) time transactions based on specified criteria. Detailed history records are maintained so that reports may reflect current time and attendance information for any point in time.

Time Collection

Acquiring time and attendance information is the first stage in the Oracle Time Management process. Presently, time and attendance data can be entered directly into Oracle Time Management . However, Oracle Time Management also provides acceptance of time and attendance data from various input sources, including time clocks.

HRMS and Oracle Time Management Initial Setup

Before time is entered or received, the system has to be set up for time and attendance management. The following flowchart illustrates the progression of steps necessary to setting up in HRMS and Oracle Time Management .

Running Your Payroll Using Oracle HRMS (US)

Oracle Payroll makes use of the following concepts when implementing payroll procedures.

· Consolidation Sets. These simplify post–processing by enabling you to process all payrolls in a consolidation set as a single payroll. When you run a payroll make sure that you have named the consolidation set to which the payroll belongs.

· Processing Part of a Payroll. Using Assignment Sets, and Element and Distribution Sets you can define which employee assignments and elements will be included in the payroll run. Using Quick Pay you can run a payroll for an individual employee.

· Post–processing for a Payroll. The following post–run processes are available when a payroll run has successfully completed.

o The Pre Payments Process enables you to allocate employee payments between the payment methods that you have defined.

o The Payments Processes enable you to make automated payments to a bank account, generate cheques/checks and report on the amounts paid to your employees. You can also verify that cheques/checks have been cashed.

o The Void Cheque/Check Payments Process allows you to cancel a cheque/check that was produced in error.

o The Retro Pay process enables you to retrospectively distribute current payments to the period in which they were earned.

o The External/Manual Payments Process enables you to make cash payments or to pay employees from external sources.

· Correction of Run Results: Retries, Retries enable you to correct a payroll run before post–processing has occurred.

· Correction of Run Results: Reversals. Reversals enable you to correct a payroll run when post–processing has already occurred.

· Correction of Run Results: Rollbacks. Rollbacks enable you to correct a payroll run without keeping any record of the original run.

· Advance Pay: The Advance Pay Process enables you to pay employees in advance for an absence recognized by your legislation.

Application Data Exchange Overview

Application Data Exchange (ADE) links Oracle HRMS and Oracle Training Administration (OTA) to desktop tools such as word processors, spreadsheets and data query tools. This enables HR professionals to manipulate HR information, with familiar desktop tools, and then upload the data back to HRMS and OTA.

You can use ADE in one of three modes:

Ø Standalone mode

Ø Application mode

Ø Letter request mode

Hierarchy Diagrammers

You view hierarchy diagrams for organizations and positions by using the Oracle HRMS Hierarchy Diagrammers.

Organization Hierarchy Diagrammer: Organization hierarchies’ show reporting lines and other hierarchical relationships between organizations in an enterprise.

Position Hierarchy Diagrammer. : Position hierarchies show line management reporting in each organization or throughout the enterprise, where you use positions to define roles.

Oracle Self–Service Human Resources (SSHR)

Functionality SSHR provide :

• Appraisals

• Applications for a Jobs

• Enrollments into Classes

• Suitability Matching

• Succession Planning

• Management of Personal and Professional Information

• Employee Histories

• Candidate Offer hire processes

Typically there are four types of user for SSHR.

• Employees

• Line Managers

• Approvers

• HR Professionals

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